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Reading Room: News and Journal Articles About Studying Sex / Gender


  • Reporting Sex, Gender, or Both in Clinical Research?
    In this JAMA Viewpoint, Dr. Janine Clayton explains the differences between sex and gender and how clinical research needs to account for these variables since hormones, genes, and gender-related environmental exposures all affect human health. (October 2016)
  • Considering sex as a biological variable in preclinical research
    In this FASEB Journal article, Dr. Janine Clayton provides a guide for preclinical investigators as they consider methods and techniques for inclusion of both sexes in preclinical research. (September 2016; subscription required)
  • Sex and Gender Equity in Research: rationale for the SAGER guidelines and recommended use
    This article provides guidelines to authors and editors to ensure that sex and gender are adequately integrated into published manuscripts. The guidelines were developed following a 2-day workshop with 13 experts and a survey of 716 journal editors. (May 2016)
  • Sex Differences in Animal Models: Focus on Addiction
    This review article, co-authored by National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Director George Koob, discusses ways to think about and study sex differences in preclinical animal models. The review emphasizes not only significant differences in the phenotypes of females and males in the domain of addiction but also the limited data available regarding researchers' understanding of those differences. (April 2016)
  • Basic science: Bedrock of progress
    Dr. Clayton, along with Dr. Collins and other NIH senior leaders, co-authored a letter in Science confirming NIH's continued support of basic research. The letter explains that the pursuit of fundamental knowledge is essential for the achievement of medical advances and, in turn, a healthier future. (March 2016)


  • Why Science Needs Female Mice
    The New York Times Editorial Board discusses NIH's new policy requiring NIH-funded scientists to consider the biological variable sex in preclinical research studies. (July 2015)
  • The Upsetting Reason Why We Don't Know Nearly Enough About How Meds Affect Women
    Dr. Janine Clayton was included among other experts in this in-depth Refinery29 article looking at issues of inclusion in health research and the need to consider the biological variable sex from the very start: in preclinical research. "We want to be sure that considering sex as a biological variable is not an afterthought," she said. (July 2015)
  • Sex Differences And Pain (Subscription required)
    Over the past 15 years, neuroscientists have pieced together one particular biological circuit that they think is involved in some chronic pain conditions. But work on this mechanism left out some important subjects: females. In Chemical & Engineering News, Dr. Janine Clayton comments on this new study that highlights the risk of ignoring sex in biomedical research. "The study is another in a growing number of examples showing how sex influences biology from cells to selves," said Dr. Clayton. "Studies like this show that it's vital to study both sexes." (July 2015)
  • Hey, Medicine: Stop Ignoring the Existence of Women
    Dr. Janine Clayton talks to OZY about the importance of considering both sexes in preclinical research and what it means for understanding female biology and women's health. (May 2015)


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