Find program summaries by NIH institute below.

Fiscal Year 2014

  • Improving Treatment Adherence in HIV-Positive Youth through Mindfulness Training Research Project
    Principal Investigator: Erica Maria Smit Sibinga, M.D.
    Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
    Stress is an important factor in treatment compliance in adults with HIV, and sex/gender appears to contribute. This research project evaluates the effectiveness of mindfulness-based stress reduction on improving HIV medication adherence in HIV-infected urban youth. The supplement will expand efforts to assess sex/gender effects by enhancing measurement of emotion control and levels of the stress hormone cortisol.
  • Comparative Modeling of Lung Cancer Control Policies 
    Principal Investigator: Chung Kong, Ph.D.
    Institution: Massachusetts General Hospital
    This research project uses modeling techniques to assess the impact of computed tomography (CT) screening on lung cancer incidence. Chest CT scans can be harmful to females who have a stronger susceptibility to the deleterious effects of ionizing radiation to the breast. The supplement will use the parent grant's lung cancer risk-prediction model to calculate gender differences in radiation risk.
  • Waterpipe Tobacco Smoking Among Adolescents and Young Adults in the United States
    Principal Investigator: Brian Primack, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Pittsburgh
    Waterpipe tobacco smoking is on the rise in adolescents and young adults, and it exposes them to many of the same chemicals as do cigarettes. Midway through the funding period, this research project discovered that young women may be particularly attracted to this activity. The supplement will take a second look at sex differences in observational data collected and will also conduct separate focus groups with women and men.
  • Striatin, Aldosterone, and Hypertension 
    Principal Investigator: Gordon H. Williams, M.D.
    Institution: Brigham and Women's Hospital
    Striatin is a protein that interacts with steroids in the body to help control the heart and blood vessels. New data from this research project indicates that striatin may work differently in female mice compared to male mice. The supplement will enable the addition of female mice to experiments to permit statistically stronger comparisons of males and females, toward a better understanding of sex differences in cardiovascular disease.
  • Molecular and Functional Mechanisms of Pediatric Heart Failure
    Principal Investigator: Brian Stauffer, M.D.
    Institution: University of Colorado, Denver
    This research project aims to improve understanding about how a child's heart responds to heart failure, providing a basis for targeted medical treatment specific to children. To date, results suggest significant sex differences in pediatric heart failure. The supplement will add hearts to the heart-tissue bank funded by the parent application to enable further analyses of sex differences.
  • Sulfonyl Urea Receptor 1 - A Novel Therapeutic Target in Ischemic Stroke 
    Principal Investigator: Marc Simard, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Maryland, Baltimore
    This research project aims to expand understanding of cell death after stroke-affected brain tissue is deprived of oxygen. Females are more vulnerable than males to a type of cell death called apoptosis that occurs after a stroke; a protective effect appears to arise from genes encoded on the Y chromosome in males. The supplement will add female rodents allow sex-based comparisons.
  • PET Imaging in Thrombus
    Principal Investigator: Peter Caravan, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Massachusetts General Hospital
    Blood clots are central to several diseases such as stroke, heart attack, and pulmonary embolism. This research project has developed a noninvasive, direct imaging method to detect blood clots as well as their disappearance after treatment with so-called clot-busting drugs. Because estrogen appears to prevent clots, this supplement will use monitor clots during stroke in male and female rats, as well as in female rats with their ovaries removed (with or without supplemental estrogen treatment).
  • Using Networks to Assign Gene Function in Lung Disease 
    Principal Investigator: John Quackenbush, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Dana-Farber Cancer Institute
    For every cigarette smoked, women appear to develop more severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) at an earlier age than do men. This research project is using systems biology methods to find genetic variations associated with COPD and to identify how those variations relate to disease. The supplement will continue the effort, identifying and exploring sex-specific COPD signaling pathways.
  • Right Heart-Pulmonary Vascular Interactions in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia
    Principal Investigator: Marlowe W. Eldridge, M.D.
    Institution: University of Wisconsin-Madison
    Premature birth frequently leads to a chronic lung disease known as bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), which affects children throughout life. This research project is tracking the lung- and heart-health outcomes of very low birth weight infants from the New Born Lung Project (with and without BPD), who are now young adults or school-aged children (two separate groups). Female rats with experimental BPD develop lung and heart problems later in life, and the supplement will compare male and female rats to characterize the effects of sex and sex hormones on these health outcomes.
  • The Effects of Aging on Experimental Models of Pain Inhibition and Facilitation
    Principal Investigator: Joseph Riley, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Florida
    This research project employs cutting-edge pain-testing techniques to identify aging-related changes in older adults. The supplement will continue to investigate these changes, aiming in particular to identify sex differences in the age-related effects of estrogen and testosterone on molecular aspects of pain control.
  • Energetics, Disparities, and Lifespan: A Unified Hypothesis 
    Principal Investigator: David B. Allison, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of Alabama at Birmingham
    This research project tests the hypothesis that animals (including humans) respond to perceived threats to their energetic security by switching life strategies to: i) build and preserve energy stores to protect themselves against true food scarcity that may occur later, and ii) extend lifespan to breed more slowly and/or in better times. The supplement will add female mice to ongoing studies on the role of hunger perception to assess changes in the rate of aging and longevity.
  • Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative 
    Principal Investigator: Michael Weiner, M.D. 
    Institution: Northern California Institute for Research and Education
    This research project is searching for relationships among the clinical, cognitive, imaging, genetic, and biochemical biomarker characteristics of Alzheimer's disease, from early disease to dementia. The supplement will study the influence of sex/gender on the development and progression of Alzheimer's disease, including the role of the ApoE-?4 genotype, a potent genetic risk factor for sporadic and late-onset familial Alzheimer's.
  • Site-Directed Oxidative Modification of Muscle Protein Structural Dynamics 
    Principal Investigator: David D. Thomas, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Minnesota
    This research project aims to understand how muscle proteins become damaged by oxidation - the addition of oxygen atoms that occurs during both aging and degenerative disease. Particular focus is on two key muscle proteins: calmodulin and myosin. The supplement will use animal models of myosin function to study estrogen-mediated sex influences.
  • Multisite School-Based Evaluation of a Brief Screener for Underage Drinking
    Principal Investigator: Jonathan Tubman, Ph.D.
    Institution: American University
    This research project is validating the NIAAA/American Academy of Pediatrics two-item screener for underage alcohol use, toward identifying risk for subsequent development of alcohol-use problems and disorders. The supplement will expand the assessment to explore gender differences in aggression and bullying behavior and their effects on alcohol use during adolescence.
  • Cherokee Nation Prevention Trial: Interactive Effects of Environment and SBIRT
    Principal Investigator: Kelli A. Komro, M.P.H., Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Florida
    This research project funds a community-based randomized trial testing the effectiveness of two unique interventions in high-risk and underserved rural northeastern Oklahoma communities that are mostly Native American. The interventions include community environmental change and brief intervention and referral. The supplement will provide additional resources to further investigate disparate health outcomes among Native American young women.
  • Facilitating Adolescent Self-Change for Alcohol Problems
    Principal Investigator: Sandra Brown, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of California, San Diego
    This research project is testing the effectiveness of a school-based brief intervention to stop hazardous drinking at six socioculturally and ethnically diverse schools. The supplement will determine how gender and ethnicity influence outcomes for adolescents participating in this alcohol prevention program.
  • The Role of Serotonin in Alcohol-Withdrawal Induced Anxiety
    Principal Investigator: Thomas L. Kash, Ph.D.
    Institution: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    This research project is studying how alcohol exposure alters emotional behavior and brain function. The supplement will assess effects of long-term alcohol vapor exposure on anxiety and depression-like behavior in female mice, and it will also look at alcohol's effects on female brain circuitry.
  • International Collaborative of Prospective Studies of HIV and Hepatitis in Injection Drug Users
    Principal Investigator: Kimberly Page, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of California, San Francisco
    This research project is a global collaboration that pools biological and behavioral data from nine prospective study groups of HIV and hepatitis C (HCV) in injection drug users conducted in four countries over 22 years. The supplement will follow up on the group's preliminary findings that female injection drug users are significantly and independently more likely than male injection drug users to spontaneously become HCV-free.
  • SCOR on Sex and Gender Factors Affecting Women's Health
    Principal Investigator: Kathleen Brady, M.D.
    Institution: Medical University of South Carolina
    This research project brings together Medical University of South Carolina researchers from different disciplines to explore sex/gender differences in addiction as well as in the relationship between stress and drug use. The supplement will optimize and compare analytic strategies to use resting-state functional MRI to detect gender differences in functional brain organization, as well as to identify gender differences in psychiatric disorders.
  • Midbrain Neural Circuit Elements That Underlie Cue-Reward Associations
    Principal Investigator: Garret Stuber, Ph.D. 
    Institution: The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
    This research project aims to identify how nerve circuitry leads to the development and expression of psychiatric disease such as substance abuse disorders. The supplement will build on male-animal studies conducted within the parent grant by investigating nerve circuits that control reward in female rodents in response to infant-associated cues.
  • Genetic Influences on Inhibitory Control and Cocaine Sensitivity 
    Principal Investigator: David Jentsch, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of California, Los Angeles
    This research project collects phenotypic (observable) data from a large panel of male-inbred mouse strains to identify genetic associations with the risk of intravenous cocaine self-administration. The supplement will perform the same studies, but in adult female mice from 30 common inbred mouse strains.
  • Systems Genetic Analysis of Methamphetamines Motivational Effects in a Mouse Advanced Intercross Line
    Principal Investigator: Abraham Palmer, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Chicago
    Using behavioral models, molecular genetic techniques, and statistical methods, this research project is identifying genes in mice linked to preferences for the effects of certain drugs over the effects of others. The supplement will be used to increase the sample size of animals in the parent grant, to follow up on data suggesting that females show greater sensitivity to various aspects of methamphetamine use and effects.
  • Neural Mechanisms of Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy in Cocaine Dependence
    Principal Investigator: Marc Potenza, Ph.D.
    Institution: Yale University
    This research project aims to identify neurobiological factors related to cognitive-behavioral therapy that affect cocaine dependence outcome and response, as well as to deepen understanding of how this treatment works and how long it remains effective. The supplement will employ functional MRI to identify sex-specific brain activation patterns linked to treatment outcomes in cocaine dependence.
  • Role of Rapid IFNg Secretion by CD-Positive T cells in Clearance of Food-Borne Listeria
    Principal Investigator: Sarah D'Orazio, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Kentucky
    This research project is identifying molecular determinants (genes, proteins) that protect some people from the serious, sometimes deadly, consequences of infection with Listeria monocytogenes. This bacterium can contaminate "ready-to-eat" food products such as unpasteurized cheeses, deli meats, and produce. The supplement will add male mice to the experimental design of the parent grant, which focused on female animals only due to their heightened risk to Listeria effects.
  • Immune Responses of the Epithelium in Chronic Rhinosinusitis with Polyps
    Principal Investigator: Andrew Lane, M.D.
    Institution: The Johns Hopkins University
    Using patient samples and experimental animals, this research project studies how cells lining the nose and sinuses affect immunity against inhaled microorganisms, sometimes leading to the painful condition sinusitis. The supplement will investigate sex differences in nasal and sinus-cell antimicrobial activity and immune effects.
  • Enhancing Neonatal Immunity to Streptococcus pneumonia
    Principal Investigator: Richard Malley, M.D.
    Institution: Boston Children's Hospital
    This research project examines the neonatal immune response to an experimental vaccine against Streptococcus pneumonia, an important cause of childhood disease in the United States and throughout the world. Because pneumococcal infection rates differ between males and females, as does the production of antibodies, the supplement will investigate whether immune responses differ between female and male mice.
  • Modeling Distinct Neonatal Purine Metabolism to Inform Vaccine Development
    Principal Investigator: Ofer Levy, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: Boston Children's Hospital
    This research project measures components in blood samples to model immune responses to vaccines in human newborns and infants. The supplement will characterize sex-specific immune responses, which will require larger samples of blood cells to enable statistical power to compare human female- and male-infant responses.
  • Virologic Correlates of Heterosexual Transmission
    Principal Investigator: Eric Hunter, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Emory University
    In the majority of cases of heterosexually transmitted HIV, infection occurs through a single genetic variant of the virus from the transmitting partner. This research project is investigating which biological properties of such HIV strains promote infection in a new host. The supplement will examine differences between male and female transmitting partners in early and later stages of infection.
  • Genetics of Cartilage Regeneration and Osteoarthritis
    Principal Investigator: Linda Sandell, Ph.D.
    Institution: Washington University at St. Louis
    This research project, using a mouse model, has identified several genes in males that support cartilage regeneration, and thus, prevention of osteoarthritis. The supplement will add female mice to look for differences in sex-based expression of those genes.
  • Role of Cell Death in Lupus Nephritis
    Principal Investigator: Roberto Caricchio, M.D. 
    Institution: Temple University
    This research project is testing the hypothesis that males and females with lupus acquire kidney damage through molecular pathways characterized by different types of cell death. The supplement will enable further study of sex influence by increasing the numbers of African-American and Hispanic male and female participants (their electronic medical records).
  • Innovative Efficacy Measures of Lupus Nephritis Therapies
    Principal Investigator: Hermine Brunner, M.D.
    Institution: Cincinnati Children's Hospital
    Currently, diagnosis and monitoring of lupus nephritis, a serious complication of the disease lupus, is performed through a kidney biopsy — surgical removal of a sample of kidney tissue. Toward a non-invasive alternative, this research project is developing a method to detect lupus nephritis-associated proteins in a urine sample. The supplement will look at gender- and age-specific differences in the readout of the urine test that might affect its use in male and female children and adults.
  • Alternative NF-kB in Bone Microenvironment 
    Principal Investigator: Deborah V. Novack, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: Washington University in St. Louis
    This research project is studying molecular aspects of osteoclasts, bone cells necessary for the maintenance of healthy bones but that are also present in bone tumors. The supplement will investigate molecular differences in osteoclast properties that affect male and female mice differently.
  • Acute to Chronic Transition in Ergonomic Muscle Pain: Nociceptor Mechanisms
    Principal Investigator: Jon Levine, M.D., Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of California, San Francisco
    This research project studies molecular aspects of pain sensation during the transition from acute-to-chronic work-related musculoskeletal pain. The supplement will add female animals to study the effects of female sex hormones in two animal models of ergonomic muscle pain - one induced by eccentric exercise and the other by vibration.
  • Translating Molecular Signal Pathways to Orthopaedic Trauma Care
    Principal Investigator: Regis J. O'Keefe, M.D. 
    Institution: University of Rochester
    This research project investigates in both basic animal models and in human clinical studies the potential therapeutic role of parathyroid hormone in bone and joint trauma. The supplement will explore sex-based differences in bone regeneration and healing, especially in the function of female and male stem cells that surround bone, in response to treatment with parathyroid hormone after bone injury.
  • Role of miR-210 in Placental Mitochondrial Metabolism 
    Principal Investigators: Leslie Myatt, Ph.D., Alina Maloyan, Ph.D
    Institution: The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
    A pregnant woman's placenta can have a significant influence on the health of her developing fetus and even on the health of the child during his or her adulthood, a phenomenon known as fetal programming. This research project is studying molecular markers called micro-RNAs in pregnant women who are obese or who have severe pregnancy-related high blood pressure known as preeclampsia. The supplement will compare molecular characteristics of male and female placentas to identify sex differences in fetal programming.
  • Cellular/Molecular Pathophysiology of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities
    Principal Investigator: Stuart Lipton, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute
    This research project aims to develop a new type of drug treatment, NitroMemantines, to prevent cognitive deficits in people with Down syndrome that are more common in males. Although the parent grant did not propose to study gender differences, the supplement will examine a range of characteristics in both male and female cells cultured people with from Down syndrome, or from mouse models, to look for sex differences.
  • Dynamic Stability in the Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Injured Knee
    Principal Investigator: Lynn Snyder-Mackler, Sc.D. 
    Institution: University of Delaware
    This research project aims to determine the clinical features of recovery ? such as the role and timing of rehabilitation ? from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury and reconstruction. The supplement will test the notion that ACL injury and reconstruction-related sex/gender differences can predict the extent of knee function and return to activity.

Cognitive Modulation of Primary Sensory Processing in Olfactory Receptors 
Principal Investigator: John P. McGann, Ph.D. 
Institution: Rutgers University
This research project, which images brain activity in the olfactory (smell) system of living, transgenic mice, aims to identify the underlying biological factors behind why most women have a better sense of smell than men. Results from the parent grant show that female mice tested without regard to estrous cycling produced different patterns of olfactory-related nerve input to the brain than did male mice. The supplement will assess whether circulating estrogen contributes to these differences by adding female mice to experiments.

Preventing Transition of Acute to Chronic Neuropathic Pain: Models, Mechanisms and Mediators
Principal Investigator: Linda R. Watkins, Ph.D. 
Institution: University of Colorado at Boulder
This research project is investigating whether glial cells (non-nerve cells in the nervous system) affect the transition from acute to chronic pain as a result of a pronounced response to injury/inflammation. Results from this study indicate, counterintuitively, that male rats given the pain drug morphine at the time of an injury experienced pain. The supplement will assess whether the same is true in female rats.

  • Metabolic Impact of Fructose Restriction in Obese Children
    Principal Investigator: Jean-Marc Schwarz, Ph.D.
    Institution: Touro University California
    This research project is testing the effectiveness of dietary fructose restriction on diabetes and other consequences of obesity in Hispanic, white, and African American children. The supplement will evaluate potential liver-protective effects of estrogen and also identify sex-based differences in intestinal and liver metabolism.
  • Critical Translational Studies in Pediatric Lupus Nephrology
    Principal Investigator: Prasad Devarajan, M.D. 
    Institution: Cincinnati Children's Hospital 
    This research project created a Pediatric Center of Excellence in Nephrology to support basic, translational, and clinical research on three pediatric kidney diseases that have major unmet needs: acute kidney injury, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis, and lupus nephritis. The supplement will look for sex differences in urine biomarkers for these conditions that were identified by the parent grant and may be useful in clinical trials and in managing patient illness.
  • Role of Mesenteric Lymphatics and Dietary Endotoxin in Metabolic Syndrome 
    Principal Investigator: Mariappan Muthuchamy, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Texas A & M University Health Science Center
    People diagnosed with metabolic syndrome have three or more conditions that affect metabolism ? central obesity, high blood sugar or fat, high blood pressure, and artery thickening ? and this leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, fatty-liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. This research project is studying how metabolic syndrome conditions affect the lymphatic system that manages fluid balance throughout the body, and whether those changes contribute to disease. The supplement will add experiments with sufficient numbers of animals to those studied in the parent grant to look for sex differences in factors that influence the flow of lymphatic fluid in the gut.
  • Mechanism of Selenoprotein Synthesis
    Principal Investigator: Marla Berry, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Hawaii
    This research project studies how the chemical antioxidant selenium participates in metabolism in healthy and diseased cells. The project's preliminary results showed that male mice deficient in a selenium-linked protein were more prone to metabolic syndrome and learning problems. The supplement will study the potential protective effect of estrogen against these health issues in mice by studying a larger number of animals on specialized diets.
  • Children's Environmental Health and Disease Prevention Research Center at Dartmouth
    Principal Investigator: Margaret Karagas, Ph.D.
    Institution: Dartmouth College
    This research project supports an ongoing study of pregnant women in New Hampshire who rely on well water in their homes to ascertain molecular changes and child health outcomes from placental exposure to arsenic that may contaminate wells. The supplement will analyze sex-specific differences in identified molecular markers of arsenic exposure.
  • CNS Glucocorticoid Epigenetic Changes of Lead Stress Effects 
    Principal Investigator: Deborah Cory-Slechta, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of Rochester
    Environmental lead exposure and prenatal stress are co-occurring risk factors for impaired cognition in children, and they also increase risk for adulthood disease. This research project examines, in mice, chemical changes to DNA and proteins in the brain as a result of lead and stress exposure. The supplement will assess sex-specific effects within these molecular changes in the brain.
  • The New Family of NEET Proteins Mediate Health and Disease 
    Principal Investigator: Patricia Jennings, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of California, San Diego
    This research project is investigating the molecular properties of a newly identified type of protein (called NEET, and found in mitochondria) that is affected by thiazolidinedione-based diabetes medications and that may be useful for targeting breast cancer. The supplement will use both male and female breast cancer cell lines and both sexes of animal models to investigate sex-based characteristics of NEET proteins.
  • Regulation of Kappa Opioid Receptor-Mediated Signaling and Peripheral Analgesia
    Principal Investigators: William Clarke, Ph.D., Kelly Berg, Ph.D. 
    Institution: The University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio
    This research project aims to identify cellular mechanisms outside of the central nervous system (CNS) that use kappa opioid receptors to control pain. The ultimate advantage of this approach is to develop treatments that do not produce debilitating and life-threatening CNS side effects such as addiction and difficulty breathing that are associated with current medications, such as morphine. The supplement will add experiments to the parent application to measure the effectiveness of new drugs, devoid of CNS-mediated adverse effects, on pain responsiveness in female rats.
  • PAAR-Pharmacogenomics of Anticancer Agents Research Group
    Principal Investigator: Mark Ratain, M.D. 
    Institution: University of Chicago
    This research project is studying inherited variability in drug response to cancer therapies by describing drug actions and side effects that vary genetically. The supplement will characterize sex effects on these inherited drug-based effects.
  • Stress Exposure and Immune Outcomes in Children
    Principal Investigator: Thomas O'Connor, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of Rochester
    This research project leverages the NICHD-funded Family Life Project, which has followed approximately 1,200 at-risk children and families since birth to understand the role of stress on childhood immune health. The supplement will look for sex differences in the association between stress exposure and immune response by analyzing 880 blood samples for testosterone, estriol, 17-beta estradiol, and progesterone.
  • Antipsychotics and Folate Pharmacogenetics 
    Principal Investigator: Vicki Ellingrod, Pharm.D. 
    Institution: University of Michigan
    This research project is determining the effectiveness of folate supplements on metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia taking medications called atypical antipsychotics. People diagnosed with metabolic syndrome have three or more conditions that affect metabolism ? central obesity, high blood sugar or fat, high blood pressure, and artery thickening ? and this leads to increased risk of type 2 diabetes, fatty-liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. The supplement will identify epigenetic changes (chemical marks of DNA) linked to sex, folate supplementation, and metabolic syndrome in people with schizophrenia.
  • Psychiatric Outcomes of Children at High and Low Risk for Depression: Follow-Up
    Principal Investigator: Maria Kovacs, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Pittsburgh
    This research project is a follow-up study of children 9 to 21 years of age who are at high and low familial risk for depression. It uses both traditional neuropsychological tests and novel modifications of such tests that incorporate emotionally distracting features. The supplement will assess sex differences in depression during this high-risk developmental window for the diagnosis of depression and conduct/substance use-related disorders.
  • Conte Center for Computational Systems Genomics of Neuropsychiatric Phenotypes
    Principal Investigator: Andrey Rzhetsky, Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Chicago
    This research project uses computational modeling to identify new ways to link genetic and environment factors with mental health conditions. The supplement will broaden modeling techniques to include those that assess sex differences in genetic risk for various neuropsychiatric conditions such as anxiety, schizophrenia, and depression.
  • Iron and Mitochondrial Genomics in Neuroinflammation and HIV-1-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders: A CHARTER Study 
    Principal Investigator: Todd Hulgan, M.D.
    Institution: Vanderbilt University
    This research project studies effects of HIV infection and treatment on the central nervous system (CNS) examining data and specimens from an ongoing genome-wide association study. The researchers are looking for genetic contributions to HIV effects ? from DNA in the cell's nucleus (in chromosomes) and from DNA in mitochondria (another source of DNA in cells). The supplement will investigate sex differences in CNS effects by measuring mitochondrial DNA in spinal fluid and assessing its relationship to iron metabolism and inflammation.
  • Neural Markers of Shared Gaze During Simulated Social Interactions in Autism Spectrum Disorders
    Principal Investigator: James McPartland, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Yale University
    This research project uses high-speed eye tracking during face-to-face interactions to measure brain activity in adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The supplement adds females with autism spectrum disorders, permitting determination of sex differences in visual attention and neural response to faces, eye contact, and facial affect.
  • The 5-HT Theory of Depression Tested in a Naturalistic Model of 5-HT Deficiency 
    Principal Investigator: Marc Caron, Ph.D. 
    Institution: Duke University
    This research project employs transgenic mice engineered to have lower than normal brain levels of serotonin, a neurotransmitter associated with mood. The goal of the project is to understand molecular and behavioral consequences of reduced serotonin, which is linked to depression in humans. The supplement will develop a new model to tests serotonin deficiency effects on social stressors since the current model is only applicable to male animals.

Vitamin D, Steroids, and Asthma in African American Youth 
Principal Investigator: Robert Freishtat, M.D., M.P.H.
Institution: Children's National Health System
This research project studies males and females with asthma to determine whether vitamin D enhances the effectiveness of inhaled steroid treatment of asthma, especially in urban African American youth. To follow up on preliminary results, the supplement will accelerate enrollment of females to look for sex differences in vitamin D effects on inhaled steroid responsiveness.

  • Center for Stroke Disparities Solution 
    Principal Investigator: Olugbenga G. Ogedegbe, M.D., M.P.H.
    Institution: New York University
    This research project funds the Center for Stroke Disparities Solutions, which aims to reduce stroke disparities with a particular focus on preventing recurrent stroke. Key approaches include targeting community-based health care providers and patients with interventions and educational materials on the link between high blood pressure and stroke. The supplement will test the effectiveness of a culturally tailored stroke intervention on women of color.
  • Value of Personalized Risk Information 
    Principal Investigator: David Kent, M.D.
    Institution: Tufts Medical Center
    This research project explores the value of providing individualized risk analyses to clinicians and patients across a broad range of medical interventions. The supplement will estimate sex-related differences in common cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease outcomes by analyzing data from computational models of risk prediction.
  • Sensory Plasticity in Migraine 
    Principal Investigator: Kevin C. Brennan, M.D. 
    Institution: University of Utah
    This research project is using imaging and other tests to study migraines ? in particular how this pain disorder may be related to brain activity that re-sculpts nerve connections and circuits. The supplement will add female mice to experiments to determine the effects of sex hormones on these changes.
  • Vascular Injury and Recovery in Diabetic Ischemic Stroke 
    Principal Investigator: Adviye Ergul, M.D., Ph.D. 
    Institution: Georgia Regents University
    This research project is studying how bleeding into the brain affects brain recovery after stroke in people with diabetes. Preliminary findings in male rats show that diabetes may worsen stroke outcomes. The supplement will conduct experiments in female rats to assess whether sex affects such outcomes.
  • The Role of MeCP2 in Rett Syndrome
    Principal Investigator: Janine LaSalle, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of California, Davis
    Rett syndrome is a debilitating neurodevelopmental disorder caused by genetic mutation within the X-chromosome-linked gene MECP2, and it primarily affects females. This research project focuses mainly on male transgenic mice, and thus the supplement will study the characteristics and effects of this genetic mutation in female mice.
  • Novel factors for Unexplained Phenotypes of Subclinical Carotid Atherosclerosis
    Principal Investigator: Tatjana Rundek, M.D., Ph.D.
    Institution: University of Miami
    This research project is identifying non-symptom related (subclinical) molecular markers that link atherosclerosis with stroke risk. The supplement will increase sample size by adding data from related experimental results, such that sex-specific differences in stroke risk can be accurately determined.
  • Neonatal Stroke: The Role of Microglia
    Principal Investigator: Zinaida Vexler, Ph.D. 
    Institution: University of California, San Francisco
    This research project is investigating how cells called microglia that affect immune surveillance in the brain affect the risk of stroke in newborns, which often causes substantial disability throughout life. The supplement will determine whether the sex of an infant affects his or her vulnerability to stroke and related cell and tissue injury.

The Genetic and Neuroanatomical Origin of Social Behavior 
Principal Investigator: Rodney Samaco, Ph.D. 
Institution: Baylor College of Medicine
This research project aims to understand fundamental neuronal and molecular changes related to abnormal social behavior in two mouse models of autism that have mutations in single genes. The supplement will assess sex differences by comparing findings in female mice with those obtained with male mice.